Major General of Justice Neko: Professionalism
2022 marks the 300th anniversary of the Russian prosecutor's office. And in September 2022, it will be 155 years since the formation of the military prosecutor's office. How the capital's military prosecutors stand guard over military legality is described in an article by the Moscow city military prosecutor, Major General of Justice & nbsp; Valeria Neko prepared for MK.
by Order of the Revolutionary Military Council
The Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office turns 97 this year. The first documentary mention of the military prosecutor's office, where the name indicates belonging to the Moscow garrison, dates back to 1925. By order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, the military prosecutor's office of the 2nd rifle corps was transformed from April 1 into the military prosecutor's office of the 2nd rifle corps and the Moscow garrison. This day is considered the day of the formation of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office.
The staff was small: a military prosecutor, two assistants, a secretary, a senior clerk, a senior copyist and a copyist. Under the supervision of the prosecutor's office there were dozens of military units and institutions in Moscow, Moscow, Kaluga and Tula provinces. In the first year alone, prosecutors investigated over two thousand criminal cases, conducted more than five thousand inquests, and considered five hundred applications from citizens.
During the years of mass repressions, the city military prosecutor's office turned out to be almost the only body in Moscow that tried to resist arbitrariness. Many employees of the military prosecutor's office suffered for their adherence to principles, unwillingness to sanction the arrest and prosecute obviously innocent servicemen.
The fate of almost all the military prosecutors of the Moscow garrison of the pre-war period was tragic. Two of them – M.M. Subotsky and M.I. Stavitsky – convicted on trumped-up charges of Trotskyist activity and shot in the late 1930s. Later they were rehabilitated.
The military prosecutors I.V. Malkin and A.I. Bakulov were subjected to political repressions and were imprisoned for a long time. Later they were also rehabilitated. Only V.I.Krestovnikov and N.I.Vladimirov escaped repression.
For absenteeism — under the tribunal
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, the military prosecutor's office ensured law and order in the garrison in wartime, organized the fight against deserters. The order of the military prosecutor has been preserved, which conveys the atmosphere of those days: “No one has the right to be absent for one minute without the permission of his superior. For any cases of unauthorized absence, I will be strictly punished, up to and including being brought to trial by a military tribunal.In December 1941 alone, on the proposal of the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison, the city commandant's office and the NKVD carried out mass checks, as a result of which 3940 persons who evaded military service, 403 deserters, 5443 soldiers who had fallen behind their units and had no documents were detained.
In addition to criminal prosecution, the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison supervised the observance of laws by military command and control bodies, bodies of inquiry and investigators of state security bodies when investigating cases within the jurisdiction of military tribunals; when considering cases in military tribunals; in places of detention of detained and arrested servicemen; in disciplinary units, as well as in the execution in military units of punishments imposed by military tribunals.
The role of the military prosecutor's office in the consideration of criminal cases in military tribunals was to prevent cases of application of excessively severe penalties against those who were confused in a combat situation and, as a result, committed a crime, so that the latter had the opportunity to atone for their guilt before the Motherland in battles with the enemy.
Article 28 of the Criminal Code then in force allowed for the postponement of the execution of sentences until the end of the war. The convicts, to whom this law was applied, got the opportunity to prove themselves in battle, and thereby atone for their guilt and be released from punishment with the removal of a criminal record.
In the most difficult period of the beginning of the Great Patriotic War and the heroic defense of Moscow from the fascist invaders, the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison was headed by brig military lawyer A.S. Agalakov.
During the years of restoration of the national economy destroyed by the war and its subsequent rise, the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison successfully solved the tasks of combating banditry, illegal arms trafficking, theft of military property, encroachments on the established procedure for military service, the formation of a respectful attitude towards the law among military personnel, criminal prosecution of traitors Motherland and persons who collaborated with the Nazi invaders.
During this period, the military prosecutor's office was headed by B.I. Alekseev, I.V. Krasnikov, B.M. Shaver, S.I. Tupolov, S. A.Smirnov, A.F.Tsumarev.
In December 1966, the Regulations on the Military Prosecutor's Office were approved by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. With its adoption, the bodies of the military prosecutor's office were finally formalized as a law enforcement system, their structure and tasks, the powers of military prosecutors were defined, the independence of the military prosecutor's office from the command was regulated, its activities in overseeing law and order in the troops were streamlined.
B 60 -70s the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison was headed by V.Ya.Dmitrenko, V.I.Dobatkin, R.A.Kuznetsov.
At the turn of the 80s and 90s, the difficult socio-economic situation, a sharp increase in crime, especially evasion from military service, problems with material and domestic support, legal nihilism in society demanded hard work from prosecutors and investigators. In those years, L.M. Zaika led the military prosecutors of the Moscow garrison.
Federal Law “On the Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation” On August 24, 1995, the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow garrison was vested with the powers of the prosecutor's office of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation and renamed the Moscow city military prosecutor's office. It was headed by L.A. Obektov then.
Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of September 20, 2010 “On the military-administrative division of the Russian Federation” Since February 1, 2011, ten military prosecutor's offices of garrisons located in the Moscow region and Moscow have been reassigned to the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office: the military prosecutor's offices of Alabinsky (now the 72nd military prosecutor's office of the garrison), Balashikhinsky, Naro-Fominsk, Odintsovo (now – Krasnogorsk) , Podolsky and Solnechnogorsk garrisons, the 42nd, 51st, 231st and 317th military prosecutor's offices of the garrisons, which were previously part of the military prosecutor's office of the Moscow Military District. On March 15, 2012, the 42nd military prosecutor's office of the garrison was transferred to the military prosecutor's office of the Strategic Missile Forces.
Today, the range of activities of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office covers the most diverse aspects of the life and activities of military units, organizations and institutions stationed in Moscow and the Moscow Region. Officers of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office took part in “hot spots” — in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Abkhazia, South Ossetia.
In 1999 by On the initiative of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor Alexander Leonidovich Ivanov, a museum was formed on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office. It contains materials about all the military prosecutors of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office, starting from 1925.
The museum fund has — copies of archival documents, including those relating to the period of the Great Patriotic War, samples of military uniforms, and other exhibits. The Museum of the History of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office was opened on January 12, 2000. It is constantly updated with new exhibits.
Here, young workers take the Oath of the Prosecutor, tours are held. On April 1, 2022, the Museum hosted a solemn meeting dedicated to the 97th anniversary of the formation of the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office. Veterans of the bodies of the military prosecutor's office were awarded medals “300 years of the prosecutor's office of Russia”. A competent approach to preserving the traditions of the department allows the current generation of military prosecutors, including representatives of prosecutorial and military dynasties, to adequately continue the work of their & nbsp; predecessors. No matter how the tasks facing the Moscow City Military Prosecutor's Office change over time, the key to their successful solution is the high professionalism of prosecutors.